反身代词、相互代词和指示代词的用法

在英语四级考试中,代词经常出现在我们的考题当中,无论是选词填空、翻译或是作文,掌握代词的知识点会给你的考试带来极大的帮助。今天给大家讲解的是三种容易被大家忽视的代词,希望大家能够好好理解记忆。

一、反身代词
1) 列表
I     you     you     she    he
myself   yourself  yourselves herself himself
we     they     it    one
ourselves themselves  itself  oneself

2)做宾语
A、有些动词需有反身代词
absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave
We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。
Please help yourself to some fish.  请你随便吃点鱼。
B、用于及物动词+宾语+介词
take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth.
I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 在那时我不能打扮自己。
注:有些动词后不跟反身代词, get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。
Please sit down. 请坐。

3) 作表语; 同位语
be oneself: I am not myself today.  我今天不舒服。
The thing itself is not important.  事情本身并不重要。

4) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:
No one but myself (me) is hurt.
注意:
A、反身代词本身不能单独作主语。
(错) Myself drove the car.
(对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。
B、但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。
Charles and myself saw it.

5)第二人称作宾语,要用反身代词。
You should be proud of yourself. 你应为自己感到骄傲。

二、相互代词
1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。在表示句中动作或感觉在涉及的每个对象之间都有相互存在关系,例如:
It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other.
显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。

2) 相互代词的句法功能:
A、作动词宾语;
People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。
B、可作介词宾语;
Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other.  吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。
说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如:
He put all the books beside each other.
他把所有书并列摆放起来。
He put all the books beside one another.
他把所有书并列摆放起来。
Usually these small groups were independent of each other.
这些小团体通常是相互独立的。
C、相互代词可加-'s构成所有格,例如:
The students borrowed each other's notes.
学生们互借笔记。

三、指示代词
1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作代词又可做限定词,例如:
单数          复数
限定词:This girl is Mary.  Those men are my
teachers.
代词: This is Mary.     Those are my
teachers.

2) 指示代词的句法功能;
A、作主语
This is the way to do it.
这事儿就该这样做。
B、作宾语
I like this better than that
我喜欢这个甚至那个。
C、作主语补语
My point is this.
我的观点就是如此。
D、作介词宾语
I don't say no to that.
我并未拒绝那个。
There is no fear of that.
那并不可怕。

说明1:
指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但在当其他句子成分是只能只带物不能指人,例如:
(对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)
(对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)
(错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)
(对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)

说明2:
That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:
(对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。
(对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)
(错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)
(对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)
(对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)

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