四级长篇阅读排除法

关于英语四级阅读理解方面,很多同学们在练习时常常提出以下的问题:文章不长,也比较容易看懂,但是选择题一做就错。这种"觉得看懂了却又做错了"的烦恼困扰着很多的四级考生。小编在此总结了以下排除法,希望能对大家有所帮助

在介绍排除法之前,我们先来了解什么叫原文相关句。

其实,同学们在做阅读时常犯着这样的错误,只是通过通读文章后自己内心的理解,来勾选答案。这样的做法就会很容易掉入到出题人布下的陷阱当中。对于每篇阅读理解而言,所要做的每道题目都应该放在原文处进行仔细比对。也就是说,阅读理解的每一道题目,都应该能在原文中找到出题处,我们把这一出题处叫做"原文相关句"。四级考试的原文相关句往往比较好找,有些题会直接给出段落号或行号,即可直接定位。对于没有行号的题目,那么就可以从那个题目中选出那些比较特殊的词汇,从而定位原文原句。

在找好原文相关句之后,我们便可以放手应用"四原则排除法"来解题了:

1:排除与原文相关句主题不一致的选项

主题一致性,是排除法的第一要义。很多题目,仅仅通过主题不一致原则就可以排除得出正确答案。

句子主题,通常体现在名词或动词上。因此审题和排除选项时,首先要关注句子中的核心名词和动词,找寻题目与选项的一致性。

例如上文提及的2011年12月Passage2 Q63:What does the author mean by saying 'money is known… to bring a relationship to its knees' (Line 1 Para.2)?

原文相关句:Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its knees, we should be grateful.

题目选项: A) Money is considered to be the root of all evils. B) Some people sacrifice their dignity for money. C) Few people can resist the temptation of money. D) Disputes over money may ruin a relationship.

原文相关句主题为money和relationship之间的关系。据此来考察各个选项:A) 提到money和evil(邪恶)之间的关系,主题不一致,排除。B) 提到人们的尊严(dignity)的问题,主题不一致,排除。C) 提到抵挡(resist)钱的诱惑(temptation),主题不一致,排除。只有D) 选项提到了money和relationship的关系,保留为正确答案。

难度稍大些的题目,可以多次叠加应用"主题相关"原则做排除。如2011年12月Passage2 Q65:What does Kim Stephenson believe?

本题目利用Kim Stephenson回原文找寻相关句,为第三段落首句:Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolizes, which may be different things to men and women. 原文相关句可提取出如下主题:a big deal, symbolize, different things to men and women。

题目选项: A) Money is often a symbol of a person's status. B) Money means a great deal to both men and women. C) Men and women spend money on different things. D) Men and women view money in different ways.

通读选项发现,A)含有symbol,B)提到a great deal,C)和D)都提及了different things/ways。因此,必须利用选项中其他主题词做第二轮排除:A)选项提到person's status(社会地位),原文原句并未提及任何个人背景问题,排除;B)选项both men and women与原文所述different things to men and women不同,排除;C)提及spend money,原文未提到,排除。因此,最终答案为D)。D)选项中view money in different ways含义为"用不同的方式看待钱",原文句义为"钱对于男人和女人所代表的(symbolize)的东西是不同的"。可见,两句虽转换了描述方式,但基本含义是相同的。

2: 排除与原文相关句态度相反的选项

态度相反原则,即选项所述主题与原文正好相反或态度不一致,可立即排除。 2010年6月的四级考试阅读理解题目中,有一道题困扰了很多考生What does the author mean by "… you're just underlining his faults" (Line 4, Para. 3)?

原文相关句:If you tell your dim friend that he has the potential of an Einstein, you're just underlining his faults.

题目选项: A) You are not taking his mistakes seriously enough. B) You are pointing out the errors he has committed. C) You are emphasizing the fact that his is not intelligent. D) You are trying to make him feel better about his faults.

这道题目很多同学会因为faults一词而误选了选项D)。我们严格应用排除法来做题目,则可避免这一错误。原文相关句主题 underline one's faults,意为"强调某人的错误",先来关注各选项动词:

A) not take … seriously没有严肃认真的对待,与原文相反,排除;

B)point out指出错误,保留;

C) emphasize强调,保留;

D) try to make sb. feel better让某人感觉更好,与强调错误这一主题相反,排除。

在此基础上,再应用主题相关原则做排除,B)选项提及指出某人所犯的错误(errors),C)选项说强调他不聪明(not intelligent),原文表述he has the potential of an Einstein(有爱因斯坦先生的潜质),没有提到犯错误,因此正确答案为C)。

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